Gomphotheres existed in the Siwaliks from the middle Miocene (14.2Ma) to the middle Pleistocene (0.8Ma) and became extinct later on. In this paper, we tried to discuss the reasons of such extinction of gomphotheres in the lower Pleistocene time span by considering Linear Enamel Hypoplasia (LEH) among 114 isolated tooth samples to assess whether ecological changes correlate with the stress factor in gomphotheres. For this purpose, the Siwalik gomphotheres were divided into two Groups viz. early gomphotheres (middle Miocene to late Miocene) and late gomphotheres (Pliocene to middle Pleistocene). We presented the hypothesis, that as the gomphotheres are characterized by the brachydonty and relied on browsing for their feeding while inhabiting the semi forest land setting thus, expected to have higher stress in Plio-Pleistocene time span as vegetational change around ~6 Ma may have exerted stress on late gomphotheres. The results for the occurrence of frequency of LEH indicated severe ecological stress in late gomphotheres (33%). The significant differences were found (P < 0.05) among the early gomphotheres and late gomphotheres which can be correlated to the vegetational change from C3 to C4, higher aridity indices and intensified seasonality after the late Miocene vegetational shift which may have resulted in substantial faunal turnover, extinction and speciation. We assume that such palaeoecological changes forced a competition with more pronounced grazers like of family Elephantidae and Bovidae resulting in extinction of gomphotheres during the late Pleistocene in the Siwaliks of Pakistan.



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