The Oum El Bouaghi region in Eastern Algeria, long considered as a cereal-growing area is nowadays a durum wheat production region par excellence. Although the damage caused by Coleoptera is very significant, studies on the knowledge of their diversity are few and remain limited for some entomological groups. Our work is the first step to evaluate the diversity of Coleoptera and the long-term impact of taking biological management measures against harmful fauna in favour of more environment friendly agriculture. To assess the beetle community, different sampling methods were combined (Barber trap, coloured traps, mowing net and sight hunting). Evaluation of the results of a single campaign showed that Coleoptera infested with durum wheat vary in abundance and diversity. We identified more than 100 species of Coleoptera belonging to 22 different families for a total number of 5698 individuals belonging mainly to the Carabidae, Curculionidae, Chrysomelidae, Scarabidae and Staphylinidae families. Although the majority of Coleoptera collected are pests of durum wheat crops (47.57%) the case of Tropinota hirta, Notaris sp or Oulema melanopus in particular, there was an interesting presence of predators (28.15%) the case of Carabidae or Staphylinidae in particular even with low relative abundance. The temporal evolution of the Coleoptera showed that the species diversity indicated a peak of abundance at the full tillering stage following an accentuated vegetative development of the host plant, and the presence of weeds. The data collected in this way constitute a basis for a preliminary knowledge of the durum wheat Coleoptera and can thus be used to design pest control strategies.