Heavy metals are considered as most important contaminations due to industrialization of countries and an influence on its existence in soil, plant and milk. A study was carried out to check manganese content in soil, forage and milk at three sites of city Jhang, Punjab, Pakistan. All samples (milk, soil, water, fodder plants and ground water) were analyzed for manganese by Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer. Different health indices were also studied to check Mn flow in food chain. Level of Mn in samples was found within acceptable limits. Manganese level was higher in soil samples collected from Site-III than other sites. Manganese showed higher value (2.595 to 10.402 mg/kg) in soil than other samples. Fodders were found to accumulate manganese from 0.008 to 0.022 mg/kg. Manganese concentration was found to be 0.1482 to 1.241 mg/L, 0.164 to 0.9708 mg/L in water and milk, respectively. BCF and PLI values for manganese were also found to be less than 1. Estimated daily intake (EDI) and THQ of manganese are found within permissible limits in milk of cows feeding on fodders irrigated with wastewater and ground water. So, use of wastewater for irrigation purpose should be properly checked due to possible toxic effects.
Received: Feb 17, 2021; Accepted: April 9, 2021; Published: May 26, 2021
Malik, I. S.,
& Awan, M. U.
Assessment of Available Manganese in Milk by Using fodders Grown in Long-Term Wastewater Irrigated Soil,
Journal of Bioresource Management, 8