Clove, Syzygium aromaticum, is one of the most valuable, ancient and premium essential oil which has been used as source of spice in agro-food industry and therapeutics for centuries. The aim of the present study was to analyze biological activities of clove oil as well as characterization of its active component Eugenol to make it worthwhile for different food and pharmaceutical formulations. Clove oil extraction was performed by Soxhlet method. Its phytochemical analysis showed the presence of carbohydrates, flavonoids, coumarins, steroids, saponnins, and tannins while proteins and leucoanthocyanins were absent in it. DPPH (2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging assay was performed which showed an increase in percentage inhibition with an increase in concentration of clove oil which confirmed its antioxidant property. Antimicrobial activity of clove oil was tested against three gram positive strains Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus thuringiensis and one gram negative strain Escherichia coli by well diffusion and disc diffusion methods. E.coli presented largest zone of inhibition. T-test was applied for statistical analysis of antimicrobial activity. P-value obtained was 0.0215 which is ˂0.05. Aqueous clove nanoparticles were made and were found to have antimicrobial activity against E.coli and B.subtilis. Correlation coefficient (R2) through HPLC was found to be 0.973531. Quantitative estimation showed the presence of 740 ppm eugenol. These properties of clove proved it as a valuable spice in pharmaceutical and agro-food sector.

Article History

Received: July 12, 2021; Accepted: Sep 12, 2021; Published: Feb 08, 2022