Grand Lake St. Marys Archive and History
E. Adams, Mark Cubberley, and Christine Junker
This poster will present an overview of our proposed project related to the Grand Lake St Marys archive, as well as the initial local history findings. The objective of our broader project is to create a publicly accessible archive (including newspapers, magazines, historical documents, photographs, maps, oral histories, diaries and letters, and ephemera) related specifically to Grand Lake St Marys and other regional history. To accompany this archive, we want to be able to create and maintain online thematically based exhibits (using tools like Omeka, for example) that would make visible the important environmental, cultural, and regional history of the Mercer and Auglaize county area. We intend for this project to have both civic and scholarly purposes. The civic value is in giving the public access to the primary and secondary documents relate to the region’s history, as well as organizing and curating compelling narratives based on the that history. Academically, digital versions of these documents allows for research in the area of environmental history and environmental humanities using the tools of the digital humanities.
Herbal Medicines Effect on Depression Treatment
Isaac Buschur, Ashley Bruns, and Caitlin Hess
Depression is a serious mental illness that affects the mood of the patient. Depression causes the patient to have a constant feeling of sadness and loss of interest in daily life activities. People with depression can feel hopeless and worthless causing them to have recurrent thoughts of suicide or suicide attempts. Depression is one of the most common illnesses today and can affect any person at any age. It is believed to be caused by an imbalance of neurotransmitters and hormones released by the brain. Therefore, there are many medicationsthat can be used for depression that alter these neurotransmitters and hormones. However, these medications can cause unwanted side effects such as insomnia, upset stomach, diminished sexual performance and interactions with other medications. This can lead patients to abruptly stop the use of these medications, as a result, another treatment should be available for people who do not want to take the traditional medicines. An alternative to traditional medicines for depression include herbal medicine. These herbal medicines can include St. John's Wort, Saffron, Ginseng, Lavender and many more. These herbal medicines can be shown to have positive outcomes on a patient's depression with minimal side effects. Therefore, this paper will be describing the alternative herbal medicines that can be used for depression and their effectiveness in improving depression.
Impact of Technology Presence on Late Adolescent/Emerging Adult Social Development Research Proposal
Technology is all around us and is utilized often in a person’s daily routine, whether it’s a cellphone, a computer, a smart watch, or any other kind of technology. There are many benefits to having access to technology such as being able to build stronger relationships, having a better way to learn, or even more effective transactions (Baron & Gomez, 2013). Having access to a public computer can have a positive impact on community development because this leads to feelings of empowerment and development of social capital, which are the foundations for a strong community (Baron & Gomez, 2013). Since the adolescent/emerging adult age span is a crucial tie for social development , it make s for a n appropriate age range to study when looking at the influence of SES on technology availability and whether or not this will inhibit social development . With the amount of technology that i s available to the public today , it’ s important to know if the re should be more focus on finding a way to make technology more widely accessible for those that may not be able to afford it otherwise; especially if this mean s they will have more positive social development . This is what the current study plans to examine. This study plans to examine the social development of adolescents and emerging adults based on their daily technology usage, which may be influenced by their socioeconomic status . The results found could be because of previously existing conditions , but it’ s expected that those who have more daily access to multiple forms of technology will have more positive level s of social development because they can create more social interactions.
Paracelsus and the Biblical Foundations of Magic: Natural, Celestial, and Demonic Astronomy
Dane Thor Daniel
Paracelsus’s understanding of magic--which he discussed in terms of the types of natural, “celestial” (or Christian), and demonic astronomy—is based largely on his idiosyncratic Biblical exegesis. An important and iconoclastic voice within early modern natural philosophy and medicine as well as Reformation spiritualism, the Swiss-German broke with medieval theories of magic via his synthesis of theology and magic. Although incorporating the mostly extra-Biblical concepts of the tria prima (salt, sulphur, and mercury), elemental matrices, and microcosm-macrocosm analogy, Paracelsus’s spagyrical world (or magico-alchemical cosmos) also featured a concept developed in his extensive theological writings, namely, that the universe consists of two overlapping cosmologies, the natural and the divine, the former a mortal creation by God the Father, and the latter an eternal creation by God the Son. In this context Paracelsus countered the types of natural magic—e.g., nectromantia, astrologica, and signatum—with its more potent “celestial” analogues.
Happiness and Health
Taylor A. Doseck
We diet, practice yoga, work out, and get adequate hours of sleep, but there might e something we are missing. Happiness is a factor of our well being that many people may be overlooking. Two hundred adult men and women will be given surveys through Survey Monkey asking about their levels of happiness and about their health. We expect to find those who are happier at home, at their jobs, and at church also have less illness, less trips to the doctors, and overall a higher quality of life. Those who are not happy with their significant other or family, with their career, or with their church life are predicted to be more likely to have more trips to the doctor's office and more illnesses throughout the year.
In Utero Drug Exposure Impact on Infant Health
Katie Edwards, Lisa M. Borges, and Carlie J. Schoenherr
Drug use during pregnancy has many impacts on the baby’s and mother’s health. Prenatal drug use affects a child’s development during his or her life. When exposed to in utero drug use the baby tends to have a lower birth weight, preterm birth, and intrauterine growth restrictions compared to a baby not exposed to drugs. The number of infants being born with withdrawal to drugs is increasing. This is an important problem because the number of fetuses exposed in utero to drugs is increasing. Research shows that exposure does pose a risk to the fetus and birth outcomes. Finding and implementing interventions to support expecting mothers struggling with drug use is a challenge for medical professionals.
Potential for Wetlands to Remediate Harmful Pathogenic Fecal Coliform Bacteria from Streams
C. Ewing, Benjamin Strang, Bradley Axe, Jocelyn Birt, Brayden Kinney, Zachary Senger, and Stephen J. Jacquemin
Wetlands are increasingly becoming a cornerstone of stream remediation in the highly eutrophic regions of the Midwestern United States. Wetlands have numerous advantages over other technologies as they incorporate natural biological process resultant from plants and bacteria while also providing an increase in wildlife habitat and greenspaces rather than relying on costly and technologically complex processes to treat waterways. The capacity for wetlands to remediate nutrients and improve water clarity is fairly well established. However, less is known about their potential to affect changes in the pathogenic microbial communities (such as E. coli) commonly associated with runoff in agricultural areas with high populations of livestock and manure runoff. The objective of our research study was to assess remediation potential by quantifying stream bacterial concentration of fecal coliforms before and after flowing through a wetland in Grand Lake St Marys watershed. Results indicated that stream water far exceeded established Ohio Dept of Health exposure guidelines of ~235CFU per 100ml sample, ranging up to over 4,000 CFU but that the wetlands reduced concentrations of Ecoli from between 50 and 85% on average,with the highest reductions in the spring. These results provide additional positive information regarding the potential for wetland remediation Ohio waterways.
Effects of Opinions on Personal Mental Illness Perception
Lisa M. Greene
The purpose of this proposed study is to evaluate the effect of outsiders’ opinions on individual perceptions of personal mental illness. How treatment is addressed is affected by the individual’s perception of the diagnosis, which can be affected by outside opinions. Thirty clients of a mental health clinic will be interviewed before their first and second therapy sessions; before the second session, each participant will be exposed to either a positive, neutral, or negative opinion regarding mental illness. The change in their interview answers will determine how influential they perceived the opinions to be. The survey will identify the participants’ feelings of acceptance, resentment, and denial in terms of their mental illness, thereby measuring their general perception of their mental illness. The results are expected to show that exposure to positive opinions lead to acceptance of the condition, while negative opinions lead to resentment or denial of the condition.
PCOS and Obesity’s Effects on Pregnancy
Mya Hager, Kylee Kiel, and Jordan Sailor
PCOS is one of the most prominent female reproductive disorders and with that comes fears for women about their health and ability to safely bear children. Women diagnosed with a reproductive disorder commonly fear they won’t be able to reproduce. This is not the case for the majority of obese women, PCOS does increase the risk of developing gestational diabetes, hypertension, and preterm labor. All of these complications can negatively affect the outcome of her pregnancy, therefore the mom needs to be closely monitored and healthcare workers intervene when appropriate. Pregnancy for an obese woman with PCOS can be challenging for a woman but with today’s research, medical advancements, and proper treatment mom and baby can have healthy lives.
The Effects of Music on Anxious Autistic Patients
C. Homan and Emily M. Buening
High levels of stress and low self-esteem are common in autistic individuals, especially with young adults. Various techniques have been done to help these levels even including musical interventions. Not many people know the effects music therapy has on a patient with autism. However, music can decrease the effects of anxiety and heighten self-esteem. Music therapy gives autistic patients the ability to learn how to control outbursts through music. Music therapy can allow a patient with severe autism the ability to share their emotions, and allow them to gain self-worth.
In Those Who Smoke, How Does Vaping Compared with Cigarette Smoking, Influence Respiratory Complications Over 6 Months?
Allyson E. Jackson, Lindsey N. Jettinghoff, and Micah J. Carter
The respiratory system is a vital system in the body. There are a lot of ways to harm the respiratory system and create irreversible complications. Smoking cigarettes has been around for many years and most people are aware of some of the respiratory complications that it can cause. Those who are adult smokers are at risk for developing asthma, COPD, TB, and much more. A new form of smoking is vaping, and many are unaware of the impact it can have on the respiratory system. The research completed on vaping is showing damage to the lining and alveoli in the lungs. The long term effect of vaping is unknown due to the newness of this trend. Discovering the impact both of these smoking methods have on the lungs is very important as well as determining which one is most harmful.
Nutrient Removal Potential of Constructed Wetlands in Grand Lake St. Marys Watershed
Stephen J. Jacquemin, Jocelyn Birt, Benjamin Strang, Conner Ewing, Bradley Axe, and T. Dirksen
Constructed wetlands are becoming an increasingly important management tool to reduce nutrient rich agricultural runoff in the Great Lakes region. The objective of this study was to assess the removal efficiency of two constructed wetlands operating on tributaries of Grand Lake St. Marys (Prairie Creek and Coldwater Creek) located in northwest Ohio. Water samples were collected weekly during 2019 year from inflow and outflow points where they were analyzed for nutrient (nitrate-N, total phosphorus, dissolved reactive phosphorus) concentrations following standard EPA colorimetric methods. Overall, while both wetlands experienced high mean nutrient inputs (concentrations in mg/L) across both fall and summer seasons ranging from 0.5 to 13+ NO3-N, 0.1 to 1.5+ TP, and 0.05 to 0.75+ DRP, respectively, high removal efficiencies (often in excess of 75%) produced significantly reduced outflow concentrations (paired t tests; p<0.05) largely consistent with EPA recommended TMDL target values for sub watersheds of these size (~20mi2: 1.0 mg/L NO3, 0.10 mg/L TP). Extending these concentration reductions to effect size and loading, wetland flow through rates, and daily stream discharge data from USGS gauging stations revealed that PC and CC Treatment Train Wetlands were found to have collectively removed approximately 10,000 lbs of nitrogen, 150,000 lbs of sediment, and 750 lbs of phosphorus throughout the year. This study continues to demonstrate the importance of constructed wetlands towards freshwater conservation strategies.
Potential of Pasture Grasses to Reduce Soil Runoff in Simulated Spring Seeding Applications
Aubrey Jaqueth and Stephen J. Jacquemin
Declines in surface water quality has emerged as one of the foremost environmental, social, and political issues in the Midwestern United States over the past several decades. One of the leading causes of water quality issues in this region has been linked to non-point source surface runoff of soil, nutrients, and chemicals from primarily agricultural landscapes. Surface runoff negatively affects water by facilitating eutrophic conditions and additionally, negatively impacts landscapes by reducing the organic and top soil layers leading to production declines. Thus, best management practices that focus on reducing runoff rates in agricultural acreage are a high priority. The objective of this research project was to evaluate the use of forage grasses for reducing runoff. We simulated pasture establishment using a series of replicated indoor grow trays which included bare soil (control) as well as cool and warm-season pasture mixes. Upon exposure of experimental trays to a standard 2-inch spring rain, it was found that the bare soil exhibited the highest runoff potential with the two warm and cool-season treatments exhibiting increasingly less runoff. The implications of this research are important as this work provides insight into agricultural pasture establishment methodology that benefits environmental stewardship.
Effect of Temperature of the Growth of Mold on Provolone Cheese
Heather N. Johnson, Victoria Borger, and Morgan Mock
How much does temperature affect how fast cheese molds? A piece of mold from a strawberry was placed on six different slices of provolone cheese and the slices stored in a refrigerator (40oF), incubator(93.2oF) and on a counter at room temperature (72oF). Mold growth was monitored weekly by measuring the diameter of mold spread in each treatment. After three weeks, the cheese held in the incubator had the highest rate of mold growth, while the cheese held at room and refrigeration temperature showed similar growth profile. However, by the fourth week, the mold exposed to room temperature grow exponentially above other treatments. Results indicate that unrefrigerated cheese may be able to resist mold growth in the first two weeks of storage. After that there is rapid degradation.
A Research Proposal: Retirement: When, Why, and Returning to Work
Chelsea M. Lautzenheiser
Retirement is a personal decision based on when and why a person is retiring. The average length of life has begun to rise due to medical advances, more education, financial stability, and an overall better way of living. Due to these factors, may the average age of retirement be increasing as well? A survey given to local assisted living centers and work centers may help answer this question. Recently, it has been noted that more elderly are heading back to work after their retirement. Using our survey, we hope to find out if the same factors determining retirement are deciding whether a person is going back to work. The surveys will be taken on a voluntary basis, with the answers being compared together based on the life stage the participant is currently in. These comparisons will lay the foundation of future research into these questions.
Attitudes Towards Social Media Regarding Age
Social media has increasingly worked its way into the everyday lives of individuals from a vast array of ages and backgrounds. Notably, the perceived effects and attitudes towards social media can vary with age. Through this proposed study, attitudes and feelings towards social media from 80 individuals, across four age groups, will be compiled from the Mercer and Auglaize county area via survey. An explanation from every participant explaining how social media affects their lives will be provided. From the responses, a better understanding of how social media is perceived to affect society, as well as it’s perceived effect on the participants will be documented. It is predicted that older individuals will have a predominantly negative view of social media, and that younger individuals will have mixed feelings towards it. This study will provide insight on how individuals across numerous age ranges residing in the Mercer and Auglaize county area view social media.
Using δ18O to track PO4 entering the Western Basin of Lake Erie
Melanie M. Marshall, Gabrielle K. Metzner, and Kevin E. McCluney
Algal blooms in the Western Basin of Lake Erie are dependent upon nutrients provided by major rivers within Northwest Ohio. To develop more accurate methods of defining which of these waterways is the largest contributor, a proof of concept study is being conducted using δ18O of phosphate molecules. In the summer of 2016, under relatively low stream flow conditions, 10-20L samples of water were collected at the several major branches within the Portage River, at the mouths of the Portage, Maumee, and Sandusky Rivers, and at two locations within the Western Basin. In the spring of 2017, these collections were repeated during high flow or flood conditions. Silver phosphate was then precipitated from these water samples for δ18O analysis.For comparison of our water collections with possible PO4 sources, δ18O of various fertilizers, wastewater effluents, and manures were also analyzed.Water samples that were collected during low flow conditions supported our expectation of lower δ18O, a reflection of higher biological processing and values near that of equilibrium calculations. Water collections at high flows exhibit a reciprocal pattern with much higher δ18O. This was again expected as lower retention time within streams restricts biological processing and allows the δ18O of potential sources to be more evident. These δ18O values, collectively, will provide insight into the validity of this novel method of tracking inorganic phosphorus.
Breast Feeding vs Bottle Feeding Effecting the Amount of Hospitalizations in the First Year
Haley Maurer, Becca Young, and Shelby Bohman
Breastfeeding and formula feeding are two ways to feed an infant after it is born. The importance of this is significant because of infections that children are suspectable to at such a young age. Children who breastfeed exclusively are shown to have lower infection/hospitalization rates than children who are formula-fed. Breastmilk has several qualities that help prevent infections in infants that formula does not. Formula is a good source of nutrients but it does not have the ability to stop infections from occurring. Infections can be very serious for infants especially if they are born preterm so having a way to help prevent these infections is very important.These infections can be very serious and can even lead to death. Preventing infants from death is one reason why this study should be researched further and presented to others to see.
Continuous Water Quality Monitoring Platform for Grand Lake St Marys
Aaron Neikamp, Alex Lehman, Brandon Siefring, Jason Evers, Ryan M. Spicer, and Shayna R. Petitjean
For the past decade, Grand Lake St. Marys (GLSM) has struggled to provide a stable and clean water source for the community affecting people and businesses alike. A safe level of microcystin –a toxin in the harmful algal blooms–is 20 ppb in recreational water, and GLSM has seen an excess of 82 ppb. As of now, there is no solution to continuously monitor the water quality; therefore, corrective actions are only based off intermittent samples taken by hand. A solution to this issue would be a water quality platform (WQP) that monitors parameters such as water and air temperature, conductivity, pH, rainfall, and wind speed along with water depth in fifteen-minute intervals. To monitor the required parameters: 1) a remote WQP will be constructed, 2) the sensors on this platform will relay data wirelessly to a data logging computer, and 3) a database will be updated with the latest condition of the lake. The WQP will provide researchers means to learn in real time what contributes to the water quality, while community members are provided with the ability to monitor the conditions, safety, and usability of the water. Scientific evidence on the quality of the water allows sound decisions to be made regarding the management of the lake through determining the cruxes leading to the poor water quality.
The Impact of Pet Therapy on Pediatric Physical and Psychological Health
Kayla Redman and Brenna Smith
Pet therapy or animal-assisted therapy (AAT) is categorized as a cost-effective alternative treatment method for hospitalized pediatric patients. Recent reports of AAT have been shown to decrease anxiety and depression, boost communication skills, and soothe the fears of the family and patient. This integrated approach has positively impacted patients’ psychological health, along with their physical health. The presence of an animal in the healthcare setting has proven to lower blood pressure and heart rate, as well as decrease pain. Pet therapy has also demonstrated a positive influence in children with mental illnesses such as Autism Spectrum Disorder and mental retardation by increasing social interaction and advancing their language skills. Pet therapy allows the patient to receive a unique and holistic approach to care that is unlike any other form of treatment available. AAT encourages a holistic approach to patient care encompassing the whole patient and not just the directed treatment of the medical condition.
Snakes on a Plain: Paleontology, Archeology, and History of the Rattlesnake and Garter Snake in Western Ohio
Ryan Shell, David Peterman, Charles Ciampaglio, and Stephen J. Jacquemin
During an investigation of caves in Taylorsville Metropark, near Dayton, Ohio, vertebral remains of rattlesnake (Crotalus sp.) and garter snake (Thamnophis sp.) were recovered from sites radiocarbon dated to a the historical period (~146 years before present) and to the Hopewell Archeological period (~1,433 years before present). The latter specimens recovered represent the some of the oldest sub-fossil evidence of the migration of these genera into the plains and forests of Ohio. A review of scientific and historical records for each genus indicates thatThamnophis appeared in the region prior to the end of the Pleistocene Epoch and persisted in abundance up to the present day. Crotalus, however, likely appeared sometime after the end-Pleistocene before the Holocene Epoch’s Medieval Warm Period. Historical reports of this genus further suggest that the decline of Crotalus in Ohio likely began sometime before 1882 CE: a trend that persists to this day, as rattlesnakes are absent throughout western Ohio.
Alcohol Consumption and its Effect on Liver Transplant Failure
E. Short and R. Pinchot
There is a stringent process to determine who can receive liver transplants. Alcohol is an important part of this process, with US transplant centers requiring a period of abstinence prior to transplant, lack of access to livers for alcoholics due to beliefs about their ability to stay sober, and monitoring of people considered "high risk" for recidivism after the transplant. While there is clear data on post-transplant alcohol use in transplant recipients with alcoholic hepatitis, more recent data has shown comparable alcohol use rates in non-alcoholic hepatitis patients, which makes the impact of alcohol use on transplant failure rates regardless of primary diagnosis an important area to explore. Additionally, the factors that cause transplant recipients to use alcohol post-transplant have begun to be further explored expanding the group that is at "high risk". Identifying these individuals and providing them with professional help has been shown to decrease rates of relapse. Preventing relapse is vital because research has shown that even one drink increases the risk of liver rejection and death.
Cost-Effective Method to Determine Effect of Ethylene Gas on Ripening of Bananas
Ashley Siefring, Devin Siefring, Brooke Gaerke, and Colby Homan
Ethylene, a gaseous plant hormone associated with fruit ripening processes, is produced by bananas as they ripen. Hence the presence of ripe bananas could trigger the ripening of green bananas if they are stored together. To test this hypothesis, green bananas, all at the same stage of maturation was collected and separated into two groups. One group was stored alone while the other group was stored with ripe bananas. The rate of ripening between the two groups was observed over 2 weeks and measured using a standard banana color chart. The study confirmed our hypothesis that green bananas ripen faster when stored with ripe bananas. Therefore, this experimental method is a cost-effective method to demonstrate the relationship between ethylene gas and fruit ripening. The alternative would require the use of artificial ethylene gas which would prove to be expensive
Simpler Method to Compare Starch Hydrolysis Rate and In Vitro Expected Glycemic Index of Flours
Courtney Simons and Charles Ciampaglio
In vitro expected glycemic index (eGI) is a reliable tool to predict postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Making these predictions is important particularly for diabetespatients who must manage their health condition by consuming products with more slowly digestible carbohydrates. Current methods require lengthy preparation time and expensive equipment. In this study, a cheaper and faster in vitro method was developed. Legume samples were digested with continuous agitation for 3 hours with the help of alpha-amylase enzyme. Glucose production was monitored by measuring changes in refractive index using a refractometer. Relative hydrolysis rates of flours demonstrated effectiveness of the method to differentiate flours based on starch digestible. Furthermore, calculated eGI outcomes were comparable to peer-reviewed literature data
Predicting Anthocyanin Content in Canned Black Beans Based on Color
Courtney Simons, Juan Osorno, and Lauren Fuelling
The dark color of black beans is associated with the presence of anthocyanins. These are phytochemicals known to contribute to improved health due to their antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-viral and anti-cancer benefits. Therefore, the color of canned black beans could potentially predict the total concentration of anthocyanins present. To test this hypothesis, 12 black bean varieties obtained from North Dakota State University Bean Breeding Program were cooked and evaluated for anthocyanin content and color characteristics (L*, hue and chroma) of end-product. Pearson Correlation statistics was applied to determine if color values could be used as a reliable index to predict relative amounts of anthocyanin in cooked beans.
Presentations given at the Lake Campus Research Symposium.
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