Master's Culminating Experience
Objective: One aim of this study will focus on determining what are evidence-based studies in asthma control. A second aim focuses on determining which asthma interventions, self-monitoring tools and asthma management programs have shown to be the most significant in improving outcomes in patients with asthma. Recommendations will be made to future asthma self-management programs based on the findings.
Methodology: The review of 15 evidence-based research studies is used to identify and analyze the best asthma self-management practices to be implemented in a community health education program. Using the Brownson framework a weighting schema was created based on the level of scientific evidence used for each study. This framework identified each study as evidence-based, effective, promising, or emerging. Five categories of interventions commonly used in asthma programs were identified for analyzing the studies identified through the literature searches.
Results: Three studies were evidence-based, two effective, nine promising, and 1 emerging. All 15 programs analyzed in this study were found to incorporate asthma education at some point or another throughout their program. Eight of the studies used six or more asthma education interventions. A total of 11 instruments were used in 14 studies. Eight of the 12 studies that incorporated the peak flow meter into programs showed improvements in increasing patient’s peak flow results. The survey sub-category is the most frequently used tool in the measurements and follow-up category with 10 programs using surveys as evaluation and/or patient assessments. A total of four studies used registered nurses as compared to doctors, pharmacists, certified asthma educator and a trained investigator that were used in one study each.
Conclusion: Assessing severity should be done through the use of surveys or peak flow meters. It is recommended that at least one home visit be made. Communication between participant’s health care providers allows for repetition and reinforcement of asthma management practices. Action plans should be done with every participant and reported to the participant’s primary health care provider. Monitoring quality of life, asthma exacerbations, and pharmacotherapy is recommended.
Smiley, E. (2011). Determining Evidence-based Practices in Asthma Management. Wright State University, Dayton, Ohio.