Activation of TRPV4 Stimulates Transepithelial Ion Flux in a Porcine Choroid Plexus Cell Line

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The choroid plexus (CP) epithelium plays a major role in the production of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). A polarized cell line, the porcine CP-Riems (PCP-R) line, which exhibits many of the characteristics of the native epithelium, was used to study the effect of activation of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) cation channel found in the PCP-R cells as well as in the native epithelium. Ussing-style electrophysiological experiments showed that activation of TRPV4 with a specific agonist, GSK1016790A, resulted in an immediate increase in both transepithelial ion flux and conductance. These changes were inhibited by either of two distinct antagonists, HC067047 or RN1734. The change in conductance was reversible and did not involve disruption of epithelial junctional complexes. Activation of TRPV4 results in Ca2+ influx, therefore, we examined whether the electrophysiological changes were the result of secondary activation of Ca2+-sensitive channels. PCP-R cells contain two Ca2+-activated K+ channels, the small conductance 2 (SK2) and the intermediate conductance (IK) channels. Based on inhibitor studies, the former is not involved in the TRPV4-mediated electrophysiological changes whereas one of the three isoforms of the IK channel (KCNN4c) may play a role in the apical secretion of K+. Blocking the activity of this IK isoform with TRAM34 inhibited the TRPV4-mediated change in net transepithelial ion flux and the increased conductance. These studies implicate TRPV4 as a hub protein in the control of CSF production through stimulation by multiple effectors resulting in transepithelial ion and subsequent water movement.



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