Fluoride Ingestion During Multiple Pregnancies and Lactations: Microscopic Observations on Bone of the Rat
Female rats were given 150 ppm fluoride in the drinking water during three successive pregnancy and lactation periods; the femoral diaphyses were then examined for morphological alterations by light and scanning electron microscopy to determine the influence of fluoride ingestion during multiple pregnancies and lactations. The periosteal surface was dominated by areas of woven bone formation with some prolonged resting areas around osteocyte lacunae. The endosteal surface consisted mainly of areas of active bone resorption with some areas of bone formation. The interior of the cortex was characterized by numerous resorption cavities and remodeling in secondary Haversian systems. Fluoride, by the nature of its incorporation into bone crystals and by its direct cytotoxic effect on bone resorbing cells, reduces the availability of calcium from bone. It appears that fluoride ingestion during lactation created a heightened state of calcium homeostatic stress. As a result, bone mineral was mobilized by resorption of the endosteal surface and by cavitation of the interior of the cortex. Secondary hyperparathyroidism is thought to play an integral part in an attempt to maintain calcium homeostasis.
Ream, L. J.,
Hull, D. L.,
Scott, J. N.,
& Pendergrass, P. B.
(1983). Fluoride Ingestion During Multiple Pregnancies and Lactations: Microscopic Observations on Bone of the Rat. Virchows Archiv B Cell Pathology, 44 (1), 35-44.