X-Linked Mental Retardation with Thin Habitus, Osteoporosis, and Kyphoscoliosis: Linkage to Xp21.3-p22.12
We reevaluated a family previously described as having nonspecific X-linked mental retardation (XLMR) by Snyder and Robinson [1969: Clin Pediatr 8:669–674] (MIM 309583). Clinical and DNA studies were conducted on 17 relatives, including 6 males with mild-to-moderate mental retardation, 3 carrier females, and 8 normal males. In contrast to the normal appearance and minimal clinical findings reported 22 years ago, affected males were found to have a characteristic set of clinical findings. These developed gradually over the first 2 decades, and included thin body build with diminished muscle mass, osteoporosis and kyphoscoliosis, slight facial asymmetry with a prominent lower lip, nasal speech, high narrow or cleft palate, and long great toes. Carrier females were clinically normal. Multipoint linkage analysis indicated linkage to markers distal to the 3′ end of DMD (DXS41 and DXS989), with a maximal lod score of 4.7. On the basis of these findings, this entity is redefined as XLMR syndrome.
Arena, J. F.,
Miller, M. E.,
& Lubs, H.
(1996). X-Linked Mental Retardation with Thin Habitus, Osteoporosis, and Kyphoscoliosis: Linkage to Xp21.3-p22.12. American Journal of Medical Genetics, 64 (1), 50-58.