Epidemiological Evaluation of Blood Culture Patterns among Neonates Receiving Vancomycin

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The objective of this study was to assess the frequency of blood culture (BC) collection among neonates who received vancomycin. Demographic, clinical, microbiologic, and pharmacy data were collected for 1275 neonates (postnatal age 0–27 days) who received vancomycin at an Intermountain Healthcare facility between 1/2006 and 9/2011. Neonates treated with vancomycin had a BC collected 94 % (n = 1198) of the time, of which 37 % (n = 448) grew one or more bacterial organisms (BC positive). Of these, 1 % (n = 5) grew methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), 71 % (n = 320) grew coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CoNS), 9 % (n = 40) grew methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus (MSSA), and 22 % (n = 97) grew other bacterial species (total exceeds 100 % due to co-detection). In patients with negative BC or no BC, vancomycin therapy was extended beyond 72 h 52 % of the time. The median duration of vancomycin therapy for patients with a negative BC was 4 (IQR: 2–10) days. BCs were frequently obtained among neonates who received vancomycin. Vancomycin therapy beyond the conventional ‘empiric’ treatment window of 48–72 h was common without isolation of resistant gram-positive bacteria.