Limb Reduction Anomalies and Early in Utero Limb Compression
Seven instances of limb reduction defects are reported with a presumed common underlying etiologic theme of early in utero limb compression, deduced as being due to a bicornuate uterus in four instances, a large fibroid in one instance, and early amnion rupture with transient amniotic fluid loss in two instances. Similar types of limb reduction defects have been experimentally produced as a consequence of early withdrawal of amniotic fluid with resultant compression of the developing limbs, leading to vascular disruption. A similar mechanism is hypothesized to have caused these seven instances of limb reduction defects.
Graham, J. M.,
Miller, M. E.,
Stephan, M. J.,
& Smith, D. W.
(1980). Limb Reduction Anomalies and Early in Utero Limb Compression. Journal of Pediatrics, 96 (6), 1052-1056.