Exploring the Past to Inform the Future to Optimize the Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Children With Severe Burn Injuries
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Sepsis remains one of the leading causes of death among pediatric patients with burn injuries. Despite limited vancomycin pharmacokinetic (PK) information within this population, it is widely used to treat severe burn injuries. Those with severe burns are at risk of nephrotoxicity, with an incidence of acute kidney injury (AKI) over 50%. Delivering an effective vancomycin dose and avoiding unnecessary toxicity is essential for improved patient outcomes. This was a retrospective analysis of 115 children aged 0.2 months to 18 years with severe burns, >10% total body surface area. Vancomycin was given via intravenous infusion; blood samples were drawn between 6- and 12-hours post-infusion. A population pharmacokinetic model was developed using nonlinear mixed-effect modeling (Monolix, version 2016R1). A one-compartment model described a steady-state volume of distribution (V), dependent on weight. Vancomycin clearance (CL) was influenced by age and estimated creatinine clearance (CrCL). The study population's (median age = 4 years, median weight = 20 kg, median total body surface area (%TBSA) = 40%) median V and CL were calculated to be 1.25 L/kg (95% CI, 1.04-1.46) and 0.15 L/h/kg (95% CI, 0.126-0.165), respectively. The PK model was explicitly developed to characterize the impact of physiological changes in children under 18 years of age and the percentage of the burn surface area using limited data. The analysis determined that weight, age, and estimated CrCL were important covariates in predicting vancomycin PK with high variability in CL and V.
Sherwin, C. M.,
Tran, N. K.,
Birnbaum, A. K.,
Kagan, R. J.,
& Healy, D. P.
(2022). Exploring the Past to Inform the Future to Optimize the Pharmacokinetics of Vancomycin in Children With Severe Burn Injuries. Journal of Burn Care & Research.