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High-quality ZnO crystals have been grown by vapor-phase techniques and by the hydrothermal method. Depending on the surface preparation technique, some hydrothermally grown crystals contain strain. These strains result in energy shifts of the free excitons as well as relaxation of the selection rules. The Γ6 unallowed exciton is observed in these samples without the application of a magnetic field. The Γ6 exciton is also observed to split in a strain field, consistent with the Γ9 symmetry for the top valence band in ZnO. The Γ5 and Γ6 excitons have been observed to split in the strain field. The splitting is believed due to combined strain and electron–hole spin exchange.


Copyright © 1999, American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in the Journal of Applied Physics 86.10, and may be found at



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