An emission band at 2.4 eV, called the green band, is observed in most ZnO samples, no matter what growth technique is used. Sometimes this band includes fine structure, which consists mainly of doublets, repeated with a longitudinal-optical-phonon-energy spacing (72 meV). We have developed a vibronic model for the green band, based on transitions from two separate shallow donors to a deep acceptor. The donors, at energies 30 and 60 meV from the conduction-band edge, respectively, are also found from Hall-effect measurements.
Reynolds, D. C.,
Look, D. C.,
& Jogai, B.
(2001). Fine Structure on the Green Band in ZnO. Journal of Applied Physics, 89 (11), 6189-6191.