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Highly conductive thin films of ZnO doped with Ga were grown by pulsed laser deposition with 10 mTorr of H2 in the growth chamber. Compared with a more conventional method of producing conductive films of ZnO, i.e., growth in O2 followed by annealing in forming gas (5% H2 in Ar), the H2 method requires no postgrowth anneal and also produces higher carrier concentrations and lower resistivities with better depth uniformity. As an example, a 65-nm-thick sample had a room-temperature mobility of 32 cm2/V s, a concentration of 6.8×1020 cm−3, and a resistivity of 2.9×10−4 Ω cm. From a scattering model, the donor and acceptor concentrations were calculated as 8.9×1020 and 2.1×1020 cm−3, respectively, as compared to the Ga and H concentrations of 11×1020 and 1×1020 cm−3. The authors conclude that growth in H2 produces higher Ga-donor concentrations but that H-donors themselves do not play a significant role.


Copyright © 2011, American Vacuum Society. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Association of Physics Teachers. The following article appeared in the Journal of Vacuum Science & Technology A and may be found at



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