Irradiation-induced Defects in ZnO Studied by Positron Annihilation Spectroscopy

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We have used positron annihilation spectroscopy to study the point defects induced by 2 MeV electron irradiation (fluence 6 x 10(17) cm(-2)) in single crystal n-type ZnO samples. The positron lifetime measurements have shown that the zinc vacancies in their doubly negative charge state, which act as dominant compensating centers in the as-grown material, are produced in the irradiation and their contribution to the electrical compensation is important. The lifetime measurements reveal also the presence of competing positron traps with low binding energy and lifetime close to that of the bulk lattice. The analysis of the Doppler broadening of the 511 keV annihilation line indicates that these defects can be identified as neutral oxygen vacancies.