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High-energy (>1.6 MeV) electrons create acceptors and donors in single-crystal ZnO. Greater damage is observed for irradiation in the [0001] direction (Zn face) than in the [000] direction (O face). The major annealing stage occurs at about 300–325 °C, and is much sharper for defects produced by Zn-face irradiation, than for those resulting from O-face irradiation. The defects appear to have a chain character, rather than being simple, near-neighbor vacancy/interstitial Frenkel pairs. These experiments suggest that ZnO is significantly more “radiation hard” than Si, GaAs, or GaN, and should be useful for applications in high-irradiation environments, such as electronics in space satellites.


Copyright © 1999, American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Applied Physics Letters 75.6, and may be found at



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