Doping and Defects in ZnO
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ZnO is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with numerous present applications, such as varistors and surface acoustic wave devices, and future applications, including UV light-emitting diodes and transparent field-effect transistors. However, all of these applications are either dependent upon, or are affected by, impurities and defects. We will consider donor-type impurities H. Al, Ga, and In; and acceptor-type impurities N, P, As, and Sb. Among defects, we will concentrate on Zn interstitials, Zn vacancies, O vacancies, and complexes of each. The main experimental techniques discussed here include temperature-dependent Hall-effect and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements because they alone can provide donor and acceptor concentrations, and donor energies. Surface conduction is important in the Hall-effect analysis of annealed samples, and is included by means of a two-layer analysis. The important topic of p-type ZnO is considered in some detail, especially in connection with the most useful acceptor dopants.
Look, D. C.
(2006). Doping and Defects in ZnO. Zinc Oxide Bulk, Thin Films, and Nanostructures: Processing, Properties and Applications, 21-42.