Doping and Defects in ZnO

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ZnO is a wide bandgap semiconductor material with numerous present applications, such as varistors and surface acoustic wave devices, and future applications, including UV light-emitting diodes and transparent field-effect transistors. However, all of these applications are either dependent upon, or are affected by, impurities and defects. We will consider donor-type impurities H. Al, Ga, and In; and acceptor-type impurities N, P, As, and Sb. Among defects, we will concentrate on Zn interstitials, Zn vacancies, O vacancies, and complexes of each. The main experimental techniques discussed here include temperature-dependent Hall-effect and low-temperature photoluminescence measurements because they alone can provide donor and acceptor concentrations, and donor energies. Surface conduction is important in the Hall-effect analysis of annealed samples, and is included by means of a two-layer analysis. The important topic of p-type ZnO is considered in some detail, especially in connection with the most useful acceptor dopants.

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