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We demonstrate that remote plasma hydrogenation can increase electron concentrations in ZnO single crystals by more than an order of magnitude. We investigated the effects of this treatment on Hall concentration and mobility as well as on the bound exciton emission peak I4 for a variety of ZnO single crystals–bulk air annealed, Li doped, and epitaxially grown on sapphire. Hydrogen increases I4 intensity in conducting samples annealed at 500 and 600 °C and partially restores emission in the I4 range for Li-diffused ZnO. Hydrogenation increases carrier concentration significantly for the semi-insulating Li doped and epitaxial thin film samples. These results indicate a strong link between the incorporation of hydrogen, increased donor-bound exciton PL emission, and increased n-type conductivity.


Copyright © 2004, American Institute of Physics. This article may be downloaded for personal use only. Any other use requires prior permission of the author and the American Institute of Physics. The following article appeared in Applied Physics Letters 84.14, and may be found at



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