Document Type


Publication Date

Spring 2009


The term cardiovascular disease refers to several diseases of the cardiovascular system such as coronary heart disease (CHD), coronary artery disease, high blood pressure (HBP), and stroke. According to the American Heart Association (AHA, 2009), CVD has been responsible for more American deaths each year than any other cause of death since the year 1900. The most recent data suggests that 2400 Americans die of CVD per day, averaging to one death every 37 seconds. Furthermore, the AHA reports that 1 in 3 Americans are currently living with one or more forms of CVD. There has been vast research into the etiology and mediating factors of CVD. Type A Behavior Pattern (TABP) has historically been implicated however, more than 40 years of research has not led to conclusive agreement as to its role. The current paper reviews the available literature on the role of TABP as a risk factor for the development of CVD and also examines the potential of the Cook-Medley Hostility (Ho) scale of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory, Second Edition (MMPI-2) in predicting cardiovascular disease. Special emphasis will be placed on the African-American population as this group continues to have the highest CVD mortality rates (AHA, 2009).

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