Pharmacologic Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Children and Adolescents: Executive Function Agents, Stimulants, and Sympathomimetic Amines

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In the treatment of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, the prescriber may consider both stimulants and non-stimulant medications; in addition, there are some over the counter substances and adjunct medications that may be helpful in mitigation or resolution of symptoms. Behavioral, environmental and psycho-social approaches should be instituted in association with pharmacology and extra caution and conservatism should be used in all children and adolescent patients. When making clinical decisions, it is important to consider use of both immediate release and sustained release stimulant preparations, as well as to carefully consider first line agents as well as second line or adjunct agents. It has been long recognized that the prominent central nervous system neurochemicals intimately involved with ADHD symptoms affect dopamine and/or norepinephrine receptor systems.