Responses of Infant Titi Monkeys, Callicebus moloch, to Removal of One or Both Parents: Evidence for Paternal Attachment

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The response to parental separation in infant titi monkeys was evaluated. Separation from the mother for 1 hr did not elicit an adrenocortical response from the infant unless the father was also removed. Separation from the father elicited a significant elevation in adrenocortical activity even when the mother remained with the infant during the separation period. Infants showed the highest cortisol levels and vocalization rates when both parents were removed and the infant remained alone in the living cage for 1 hr. As in previous research, infants maintained higher levels of contact with the father than with the mother. The results indicate that in this monogamous New World primate, the father is the primary attachment figure for the developing infant. © 1995 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.



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