Improvement of Glucose Homeostasis in Obese Diabetic db/db Mice Given Plasmodium Yoelii Glycosylphosphatidylinositols

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We have previously reported that infection with Plasmodium yoelii, Plasmodium chabaudi, or injection of extracts from malaria-parasitized red blood cells induces hypoglycemia in normal mice and normalizes the hyperglycemia in streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic mice. P yoelii glycosylphosphatidylinositols (GPIs) were extracted in chloroform:methanol:water (CMW) (10:10:3), purified by high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) and tested for their insulin-mimetic activities. The effects of P yoelii GPIs on blood glucose were investigated in insulin-resistant C57BL/ks-db/db diabetic mice. A single intravenous injection of GPIs (9 and 30 nmol/mouse) induced a significant dose-related decrease in blood glucose (P < .001), but insignificantly increased plasma insulin concentrations. A single oral dose of 2.7 μmol GPIs per db/db mouse significantly lowered blood glucose (P < .01). P yoelii GPIs in vitro (0.062 to 1 μmol/L) significantly stimulated lipogenesis in rat adipocytes in a dose-dependent manner both in the presence and absence of 10−8 mol/L insulin (P < .01). P yoelii GPIs stimulated pyruvate dehydrogenase phosphatase (PDH-Pase) and inhibited both cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A and glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase). P yoelii GPIs had no effect on the activity of the gluconeogenic enzymes fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase (FBPase) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). This is the first report of the hypoglycemic effect of P yoelii GPIs in murine models of type 2 diabetes. In conclusion, P yoelii GPIs demonstrated acute antidiabetic effects in db/db mice and in vitro. We suggest that P yoelii GPIs, when fully characterized, may provide structural information for the synthesis of new drugs for the management of diabetes.



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