Extracorporeal Methods of Vascular Control for Difficult IVC Procedures

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Surgical procedures in the juxtahepatic and intrapericardial inferior vena cava (IVC) are difficult because of the complexity of achieving vascular control in the area. We describe 10 patients with a variety of pathologies in this region who underwent venovenous bypass (VVB) or cardiopulmonary bypass with hypothermic circulatory arrest (CBCA). Renal cell carcinoma with IVC extension was present in three patients (with tumor extension into the right atrium in two), adrenal adenocarcinoma in one, septic IVC thrombus in one, and blunt IVC/hepatic trauma in five. Those patients without atrial involvement underwent VVB with a mean bypass time of 40 minutes (range 12-144). Those patients with tumor extension into the right atrium underwent CBCA with systemic hypothermia to 18(0)C, total body exsanguination for a bloodless field, and removal of the tumor by cavotomy and right atriotomy. The mean bypass, aortic cross-clamp, and circulatory arrest times were 152, 92, and 36 minutes, respectively. Eight of the 10 patients did well and went home within 4 weeks of surgery. Two patients died, one from metabolic sequelae of exsanguinating IVC injury (VVB) and one from sepsis 2 weeks postoperatively (CBCA).


This paper was presented at the American College of Surgeons - Southern California Chapter Annual Meeting, Indian Wells, California, January 21, 1995.

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