The Confederate Naval Squadron at Charleston and the Failure of Naval Harbor Defense
Describes the ironclads built by the South to defend Charleston harbor and to attempt to break the Union blockade. Focuses on the ironclads 'Palmetto State' and 'Chicora,' their 31 January 1863 attack on the blockading ships, and the Confederate government's claim that the blockade had been broken. Concludes that the Confederate ironclads were technologically inferior to Union ironclads and that the commanders were probably wise to not seek battle with the Union fleet after the arrival of Monitor-class ironclads to strengthen Union forces.
Lockhart, P. D.
(1984). The Confederate Naval Squadron at Charleston and the Failure of Naval Harbor Defense. American Neptune, 44 (4), 257-275.