Anthropometric adjustments are helpful in the interpretation of BMD and BMC Z-scores of pediatric patients with Prader-Willi syndrome

Document Type


Publication Date



Summary: Anthropometric adjustments of bone measurements are necessary in Prader-Willi syndrome patients to correctly assess the bone status of these patients. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of normal versus abnormal bone, allow for early and effective intervention, and achieve better therapeutic results. Introduction: Bone mineral density (BMD) is decreased in patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS). Because of largely abnormal body height and weight, traditional BMD Z-scores may not provide accurate information in this patient group. The goal of the study was to assess a cohort of individuals with PWS and characterize the development of low bone density based on two adjustment models applied to a dataset of BMD and bone mineral content (BMC) from dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) measurements. Methods: Fifty-four individuals, aged 5–20 years with genetically confirmed PWS, underwent DXA scans of spine and hip. Thirty-one of them also underwent total body scans. Standard Z-scores were calculated for BMD and BMC of spine and total hip based on race, sex, and age for all patients, as well as of whole body and whole-body less head for those patients with total-body scans. Additional Z-scores were generated based on anthropometric adjustments using weight, height, and percentage body fat and a second model using only weight and height in addition to race, sex, and age. Results: As many PWS patients have abnormal anthropometrics, addition of explanatory variables weight, height, and fat resulted in different bone classifications for many patients. Thus, 25–70 % of overweight patients, previously diagnosed as normal, were subsequently diagnosed as below normal, and 40–60 % of patients with below-normal body height changed from below normal to normal depending on bone parameter. Conclusions: This is the first study to include anthropometric adjustments into the interpretation of BMD and BMC in children and adolescents with PWS. This enables physicians to get a more accurate diagnosis of normal versus abnormal BMD and BMC and allows for early and effective intervention.



Find in your library

Off-Campus WSU Users