Phylogenetic Relationships of Tachinid Flies in Subfamily Exoristinae (Tachinidae: Diptera) Based on 28S rDNA and Elongation Factor 1a

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The phylogenetic relationships within the largest subfamily of Tachinidae, Exoristinae, were explored using nucleotide sequences of two genes (EF-1α and 28S rDNA). A total of fifty-five and forty-three taxa were represented in the analyses for each gene, respectively, representing forty-three genera. Neighbour joining, parsimony and maximum likelihood inference methods were employed to reconstruct phylogenetic relationships in separate analyses of each gene, and parsimony was used to analyse the combined dataset. Although certain taxa were highly mobile, phylogenetic reconstructions generally supported recent classification schemes based on reproductive habits and genitalia. Generally, the monophyly of Tachinidae and Exoristinae was supported. Tribes Winthemiini, Exoristini and Blondeliini were repeatedly constructed as monophyletic groups, with the former two clades often occupying a basal position among Exoristinae. Goniini and Eryciini generally clustered together as a derived clade within Exoristinae; however, they were never reconstructed as two distinct clades. These results suggest that the possession of unembryonated eggs is plesiomorphic within the subfamily and that there may have been multiple transitions between microtype and macrotype egg forms.