Insulin-Like Growth Factor-I and -II Messenger RNA Expression in Muscle, Heart, and Liver of Streptozotocin-Diabetic Swine

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We have investigated the effects of streptozotocin- diabetes and fasting in juvenile swine by monitoring IGF-I and -II gene expression in muscle, heart, and liver tissues. In diabetic pigs, IGF-I messenger RNAs (mRNA) were decreased by 50% in muscle and liver tissues, and by 70% in heart. The imposition of fasting on diabetic animals tended to further decrease IGF-I mRNA levels, and fasting alone also decreased IGF-I mRNA abundance in the three tissues (P < 0.05). Insulin therapy restored IGF-I mRNA levels to normal in muscle and livers but was less effective in hearts of diabetic pigs. Relative IGF-I mRNA expression in heart and muscle tissues was 2-fold and 4-fold higher, respectively, than in liver tissues under normal conditions in these animals. Serum IGF-I concentrations and tissue extractable immunoreactive IGF-I levels were also measured. Serum IGF-I was markedly decreased in the diabetic state, dropping to 70% below control levels (P < 0.01). Extractable IGF-I in liver declined by 50% with diabetes (P < 0.01), and by 30% in muscle with diabetes and fasting (P < 0.05), but no significant changes in heart levels of IGF-I protein were detected. Expression levels of IGF-II mRNAs in the three tissues were unaffected by diabetes or fasting. These results are consistent with earlier observations in rat liver and further demonstrate that IGF-I expression in muscle and heart is altered by diabetes and fasting, whereas IGF-II mRNAs do not change.