Comparison of Glucosinolate Diversity in the Crucifer Tribe Cardamineae and the Remaining Order Brassicales Highlights Repetitive Evolutionary Loss and Gain of Biosynthetic Steps
We review glucosinolate (GSL) diversity and analyze phylogeny in the crucifer tribe Cardamineae as well as selected species from Brassicaceae (tribe Brassiceae) and Resedaceae. Some GSLs occur widely, while there is a scattered distribution of many less common GSLs, tentatively sorted into three classes: ancient, intermediate and more recently evolved. The number of conclusively identified GSLs in the tribe (53 GSLs) constitute 60% of all GSLs known with certainty from any plant (89 GSLs) and apparently unique GSLs in the tribe constitute 10 of those GSLs conclusively identified (19%). Intraspecific, qualitative GSL polymorphism is known from at least four species in the tribe. The most ancient GSL biosynthesis in Brassicales probably involved biosynthesis from Phe, Val, Leu, Ile and possibly Trp, and hydroxylation at the β-position. From a broad comparison of families in Brassicales and tribes in Brassicaceae, we estimate that a common ancestor of the tribe Cardamineae and the family Brassicaceae exhibited GSL biosynthesis from Phe, Val, Ile, Leu, possibly Tyr, Trp and homoPhe (ancient GSLs), as well as homologs of Met and possibly homoIle (intermediate age GSLs). From the comparison of phylogeny and GSL diversity, we also suggest that hydroxylation and subsequent methylation of indole GSLs and usual modifications of Met-derived GSLs (formation of sulfinyls, sulfonyls and alkenyls) occur due to conserved biochemical mechanisms and was present in a common ancestor of the family.
Apparent loss of homologs of Met as biosynthetic precursors was deduced in the entire genus Barbarea and was frequent in Cardamine (e.g. C. pratensis, C. diphylla, C. concatenata, possibly C. amara). The loss was often associated with appearance of significant levels of unique or rare GSLs as well as recapitulation of ancient types of GSLs. Biosynthetic traits interpreted as de novo evolution included hydroxylation at rare positions, acylation at the thioglucose and use of dihomoIle and possibly homoIle as biosynthetic precursors. Biochemical aspects of the deduced evolution are discussed and testable hypotheses proposed. Biosyntheses from Val, Leu, Ile, Phe, Trp, homoPhe and homologs of Met are increasingly well understood, while GSL biosynthesis from mono- and dihomoIle is poorly understood. Overall, interpretation of known diversity suggests that evolution of GSL biosynthesis often seems to recapitulate ancient biosynthesis. In contrast, unprecedented GSL biosynthetic innovation seems to be rare.
Hansen, C. C.,
Hauser, T. P.,
Asmussen Lange, C. B.,
& Koch, M. A.
(2021). Comparison of Glucosinolate Diversity in the Crucifer Tribe Cardamineae and the Remaining Order Brassicales Highlights Repetitive Evolutionary Loss and Gain of Biosynthetic Steps. Phytochemistry, 185, 112668.