Declarative semantics in logic programming and nonmonotonic reasoning are often defined via fixed points of semantic operators. While many relationships between different semantics known from the literature have been studied, a uniform treatment is still missing. In this paper, we provide uniform operator-free characterizations for some of the most important semantics, more precisely, for the stable, the well-founded, and the Fitting semantics, for the weakly-perfect model semantics, and for the least model semantics for negation-free programs.
& Wendt, M.
(2002). Characterizing Logic Programming Semantics with Level Mappings. Proceedings of the WLP: Workshop Logische Programmierung, 60-67.