Knowledge Representation and Ontologies

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Book Chapter

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In Artificial Intelligence, knowledge representation studies the formalisation of knowledge and its processing within machines. Techniques of automated reasoning allow a computer system to draw conclusions from knowledge represented in a machine-interpretable form. Recently, ontologies have evolved in computer science as computational artefacts to provide computer systems with a conceptual yet computational model of a particular domain of interest. In this way, computer systems can base decisions on reasoning about domain knowledge, similar to humans. This chapter gives an overview on basic knowledge representation aspects and on ontologies as used within computer systems. After introducing ontologies in terms of their appearance, usage and classification, it addresses concrete ontology languages that are particularly important in the context of the Semantic Web. The most recent and predominant ontology languages and formalisms are presented in relation to each other and a selection of them is discussed in more detail.

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