Knowledge-based artificial neural networks have been applied quite successfully to propositional knowledge representation and reasoning tasks. However, as soon as these tasks are extended to structured objects and structure-sensitive processes as expressed e.g., by means of first-order predicate logic, it is not obvious at all what neural-symbolic systems would look like such that they are truly connectionist, are able to learn, and allow for a declarative reading and logical reasoning at the same time. The core method aims at such an integration. It is a method for connectionist model generation using recurrent networks with feed-forward core. We show in this paper how the core method can be used to learn first-order logic programs in a connectionist fashion, such that the trained network is able to do reasoning over the acquired knowledge. We also report on experimental evaluations which show the feasibility of our approach.
& Holldobler, S.
(2008). Connectionist Model Generation: A First-Order Approach. Neurocomputing, 71, 2420-2432.