Fluid Inclusions in the Stripa Granite and Their Possible Influence on the Ground-Water Chemistry

Document Type


Publication Date



Fluid inclusions in quartz and calcite of the Proterozoic Stripa granite, central Sweden, demonstrate that the rock and its fracture fillings have a complex evolutionary history. The majority of inclusions indicate formation during a hydrothermal stage following emplacement of the Stripa pluton. Total salinities of quartz inclusions range from 0–18 eq.wt% NaCl for unfractured rock and from 0–10 eq.wt% for fractured rock. Vein calcites contain up to 25 eq.wt% NaCl but the inclusion size is larger and the population density is lower. Homogenization temperatures are 100–150°C for unfractured rock and 100–250° for fractured rock. Pressure corrections, assuming immediate post-emplacement conditions of 2 kbar, give temperatures about 160°C higher.

Measurements of fluid-inclusion population-densities in quartz range from about 108 inclusions/cm3 in grain quartz to 109 inclusions/cm3 in vein quartz. Residual porosity from inclusion densities has been estimated to be at least 1% which is two orders of magnitude greater than the flow porosity.

Breakage and leaching of fluid inclusions is proposed as an hypothesis for the origin of major solutes (Na-Ca-Cl) in the groundwater. Evidence for the hypothesis is based on (1) mass balance—only a small fraction of the inclusions need to leak to account for salt concentrations in the groundwater, (2) chemical signatures— ratios of fluid inclusion leachates (0.0101) match those ratios for the deep groundwaters (0.0107), (3) leakage mechanisms—micro-stresses from isostatic rebound or mining activities acting on irregular-shaped inclusions could cause breakage and provide connection with the flow porosity, and (4) experimental studies—water forced through low permeability granites leach significant quantities of salt. This hypothesis is consistent with the available data although alternate hypotheses cannot be excluded.