Relationships of Depression, Anxiety, and Stress with Adherence to Self-Management Behaviors and Diabetes Measures in African American Adults with Type 2 Diabetes

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This study examines the relationships of depression, anxiety, and stress with adherence to self-management behaviors and diabetes measures in 42 African American adults with type 2 diabetes (T2D). Participants were recruited from an outpatient clinic located in an urban area of a midsized city in the southeastern USA. The mean age of the sample was 54.9 years (SD = 9.9) and the majority of the participants were female (73.2%), high school graduates (55.3%), unemployed (70.7%), and publicly insured (77.8%). Each participant completed a demographic survey and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale 21. Adherence to self-management behaviors (physical activity, diet, and medication use) was assessed using surveys and self-reports. Glycated hemoglobin (A1c) and body mass index (BMI) were obtained from participants’ medical records at the time of the participants’ clinic visits. Depression, anxiety, and stress were not significantly correlated with self-management behaviors. Depression (r = 0.38, p = 0.03), anxiety (r = 0.56, p = 0.001), and stress (r = 0.36, p = 0.04) were positively correlated with A1c. The greater the dietary risk assessment score, the higher the A1c (r = 0.34, p = 0.05). Anxiety was the strongest correlate of A1c followed by depression, stress, and dietary risk assessment. Future studies to confirm this study’s findings in a larger sample are warranted. Interventions to mitigate the effects of these correlates should be designed and tested to improve health outcomes in African American adults with T2D.



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