Research in medicine and social sciences often involves the participation of human participants, who under the rules in place today volunteer their time and understand both the benefits and risks associated with the research. This was not always the case. Rules, regulations, and laws currently require oversight by organizations referred to as Institutional Review Boards (IRBs). These boards exist to protect the participants, ensure their ethical treatment, and encourage good research. IRBs enhance the quality of research planning, and the IRB process should be part of every researcher's timeline for completion of his/her projects.
Stein, D. S.
(2005). The Role of Institutional Review Boards in Aviation Research: It's the Law and It Makes Sense. 2005 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 712-717.