Pilots transitioning to the Airbus A320 were observed in flight and interviewed at four sample points during their first 18 months on the airplane. The interview data were analyzed by examining changes in both the relative frequencies of automation terms and the similarity of pairs of terms over time. The results show that pilots master selected modes before managed modes, and that even after 18 months of experience, their models of complex managed modes are still changing.
(2007). Measuring Change in Pilots’ Conceptual Understandings of Autoflight. 2007 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 281-286.