The present research investigated factors that contribute to the compatibility of attitude display formats with actions taken to control an aircraft. In three experiments, participants performed a speeded response task in which they responded by banking an aircraft according to a nonspatial aspect of lateralized stimuli. The format of attitude display was horizon-moving or aircraftmoving, and each participant used normal and reversed controls. These manipulations dissociated influences of three response factors (aircraft, display, hand) on the stimulus-response compatibility, or Simon, effect. The influences of the three factors on the Simon effect were nearly additive, and their contributions depended on the task contexts. In particular, throughout the three experiments, the major factors in representing responses were the movement directions of the aircraft and the operating hands, and the influence of display format became small as participants directed attention onto the display.
& Proctor, R. W.
(2009). A Compatibility Analysis of Attitude Display Formats. 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 355-360.