A parameter meta-analysis was conducted to characterize human responses to off-nominal events. The probability of detecting an off-nominal event was influenced by characteristics of the offnominal event scenario (phase of flight, expectancy, and event location) and the presence of advanced cockpit technologies (head-up displays, highway-in-the-sky displays, datalink, and graphical route displays). The results revealed that the presence of these advanced technologies hindered event detection reflecting cognitive tunneling and pilot complacency effects.
Hooey, B. L.,
Wickens, C. D.,
& Gore, B. F.
(2009). Predicting the Unpredictable: Estimating Human Performance Parameters for Off-Nominal Events. 2009 International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 202-207.