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The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) funded a study aimed at ameliorating issues with visual flight rules (VFR) pilots flying into instrument weather conditions (IMC). Scenario-based simulation training (SBST) was developed to examine threat and error management (TEM) skills among private pilots. SBST was modeled after line-oriented flight training (LOFT), and new technologies were developed to improve weather simulation. This paper includes a Human Factors analysis of flight simulation development, and it details weather simulation improvements. Historical weather data was used for accurate recreation of pre-flight briefings, simulated weather parameters, and in-flight weather reports, and the technologies were tested among distinctly different pilot populations. The first experiment examined career-track aviation students, and the second experiment involved VFR-only pilots with no career aspirations. The technologies developed for this project revealed interesting findings related to inadequate training, and results indicate that SBST can effectively fill holes in ab intio flight training and foster higher simulation fidelity at all levels of flight training.