In the past, several display concepts have been developed, as aids in the task of airborne self-separation. In several of these display concepts, the interface helps the pilot solve the conflict, as opposed to automation providing an explicit resolution. Especially in this case of manual problem solving, (implicit) interaction between the actors in a conflict becomes an important factor. An experiment was conducted to evaluate an EID-inspired, constraint-based separation assistance display, where all aircraft in each conflict were controlled by pilot subjects. In the experiment, several conflict scenario’s have been evaluated, where coordination between pilots could either follow implicitely from the conflict geometry presented by the interface, or, require additional, explicit rules (“rules of the air”) to be solved in a coordinated fashion.
& van Paassen, M.
(2011). Evaluation of a Separation Assistance Display in a Multi-Actor Experiment. 16th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 333-338.