Traditional command and control (C2) models focus on a centralized command managing and directing one or more subordinate elements to perform required functions. However, in distributed C2 environments, a human commander has less ability to fully understand and control the behavior of "agents" (either human domain experts or autonomous automated systems) in real-time operations. In this paper, we explore the situational, information, and human performance issues that constrain the appropriateness of classical C2 system design, and highlight the need for distributed C2 information flow capabilities, in contemporary humanhuman and human-automation teams. We discuss these issues in the context of modern day aviation and aerospace operations.
Cuevas, H. M.,
& Caldwell, B. S.
(2013). Exploring the Boundaries of Command and Control Models of Distributed Team Performance in Aviation and Aerospace Operations. 17th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 359-364.