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Spatial Disorientation (SD) is an important cause of deadly aircraft mishaps, despite improvements in night vision, head-up-displays, cockpit automation, etc. This paper explores several technological countermeasures for SD. This report begins by discussing the magnitude of the SD problem and the reasons why technological countermeasures are needed. The authors discuss the three main approaches that are typically used (improved selection, training, or technology) to decrease the incidence of SD, and argue that improved selection and training, although beneficial, are not sufficient by themselves to prevent SD. The authors introduce various technological solutions they are developing, including better models to predict disorientation, as well as better cockpit displays to provide accurate earth-referenced visual, auditory, or tactile cues. The authors describe how these technological approaches should benefit situational awareness, spatial localization, detection of sub-threshold vehicle motion, and prevent imminent collision with objects that are not being attended to by the pilot.