Document Type


Publication Date





A key capability envisioned for the future air transportation system is the concept of equivalent visual operations (EVO). EVO is the capability to achieve the safety of current-day Visual Flight Rules (VFR) operations and maintain the operational tempos of VFR irrespective of the weather and visibility conditions. Enhanced Flight Vision Systems (EFVS) offer a path to achieve EVO. NASA has successfully tested EFVS for commercial flight operations that has helped establish the technical merits of EFVS, without reliance on natural vision, to runways without category II/III ground-based navigation and lighting requirements. The research has tested EFVS for operations with both Head-Up Displays (HUDs) and “HUD equivalent” Head-Worn Displays (HWDs). The paper describes the EVO concept and representative NASA EFVS research that demonstrate the potential of these technologies to safely conduct operations in visibilities as low as 1000 feet Runway Visual Range (RVR). Future directions are described including efforts to enable low-visibility approach, landing, and roll-outs using EFVS under conditions as low as 300 feet RVR.