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In order to evaluate new operational concepts, system designs, procedures and technologies for the future aviation system, we need to develop and validate a range of techniques to ensure the safe and effective performance of human-machine systems. This becomes increasingly important as such systems incorporate increasing levels of automation and autonomy for technologies, and as they attempt to integrate increasingly complex subsystems. It is challenging to evaluate the individual components of such systems relative to meeting their design requirements. It is orders of magnitude more challenging to evaluate performance when they are embedded in the larger system context. While there is no perfect method for such an assessment, a number of complementary techniques have been developed, applied and evaluated and will be discussed. Some can be applied early in the design process, while others focus on assessment as a system has been released for field trials or actual operations.