The US Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) established the Air Traffic Safety Oversight Service (AOV) in 2005. Its mission is to provide independent oversight of the US air traffic service provider, Air Traffic Organization (ATO). AOV monitors ATO compliance with safety standards and safety management systems (SMS) including the ATO’s policies, procedures, and practices. AOV based its surveillance activities on systematic auditing methods to monitor ATO compliance with required safety controls. However, audits could only be used to monitor required safety controls having objective (strong) evidence of performance available. AOV lacked methods to monitor discretionary (weak) safety controls or safety controls without objective evidence of performance (weak). By adapting data collection methods from other domains of human performance assessment, we developed methods for monitoring discretionary controls and all controls without objective evidence of performance. The systematic assessment method complements AOV's audit process so that more extensive oversight activities can be conducted. 150
& Galoci, L.
(2015). Performance Assessment Methods to Evaluate Discretionary ATC Safety Standards. 18th International Symposium on Aviation Psychology, 101-104.