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The Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), under the Next Generation Air Transportation System (NextGen) program, made significant progress in terms of infrastructure modernization of the National Airspace System (NAS). Development of infrastructure incorporated a broad scope of human performance considerations which this paper discussesat a high level. Sincethe FAA completed much of the infrastructure modernization, focus shiftedto NextGen Transformation so that benefits can be realized. NextGen Transformation involves insuring that FAA systems are seamlessly integrated; that integrated pilot and controller procedures are in place; new roles and responsibilities are defined; and that stakeholders are informed, trained, and adapted to the NextGen technologies and procedures and are comfortable in their use. This paperconcludes with an overview of challenges and opportunities the FAA is facing as itshifts its focus to NextGen Transformation -specifically as it pertains to human factors, safety, training, and the workforce of the future.