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Performance decrements associated with fatigue are significant risk factors of occupational, motor vehicle, and aviation accidents. The substantial number of recent aviation occurrences involving aircrew fatigue and the slow progress of related rulemaking prompted the TSB to include fatigue management on its 2018 Watchlist of key safety issues. At the same time, a finding of aircrew fatigue in a 2017 NTSB investigation into a near-taxiway landing prompted some journalists to argue that there are few, if any, research studies showing how fatigue affects flying ability, and that current efforts in fatigue management may not be effective. This paper explores research in psychology where effects of fatigue on human performance were identified, and describes correlative changes in pilot performance, with a focus on the approach and landing phases of flight. Examples from recent TSB air transportation safety investigations are used to illustrate.