Document Type


Publication Date



As technology upgrades become more complex and introduce sources of performance variability into the system, human factors engineers must identify and mitigate the risks involved. As opposed to more traditional methods like Human Factors Failure Mode and Effects (HF-FMEA), this research explored the use of the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM) and Model-Based Systems Engineering (MBSE) activity diagrams to better understand how variability of human behavior in complex socio-technical systems affect overall performance and how redesign may address performance shortfalls. FRAM analysis was conducted to detect potential failures and deviations. MBSE activity diagrams were then developed to decompose the actions of the aircrew and analyzed to determine specific areas that human factors engineers should address. This paper will discuss the observations that each individual technique supports while also providing a discussion of how both methods can be used together to create a more resilient design.