Document Type

Master's Culminating Experience

Publication Date



Background: Lead is a known endocrine disruptor and can impair regulation of blood glucose, blood pressure, abdominal adiposity, blood lipid levels which are risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MetS).

Objective: To study the association of lead exposure and MetS in United States (U.S.) adults.

Methods: Data from 523 male and 528 female participants aged 20 years and older from the 2013 to 2014 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) were analyzed. Based on blood lead distribution in males and females, participants were categorized into low and high blood lead groups in both genders. Adjusted logistic regression analysis was used to determine association between lead exposure and MetS; controlling for age, ethnicity, income and smoking status.

Results: The overall median blood lead levels for U.S. adults aged 20 years and older were 1.03 ug/dL; median blood lead levels were higher for males (1.23ug/dL) and lower for females (0.86 ug/dL). Prevalence of MetS in the male and female was 57.55% and 38.60%, respectively. Compared to low blood lead groups, neither men nor women in high blood lead group showed any elevated risk of MetS. The adjusted odds ratio (95% confidence interval) of MetS in males was 0.741 (0.464-1.20), p-value: 0.209, in females it was 0.921 (0.563-1.51), p-value: 0.745. Conclusion: For adults aged 20 years and older low median blood lead levels in the U.S. were not significantly associated with MetS.

Additional Files

ILEPoster.KhadraGukadowrFinal.pdf (467 kB)

Included in

Public Health Commons