Document Type

Master's Culminating Experience

Publication Date



Human feces contains ten million viruses, one million bacteria, and 1,000 parasitic cysts, contributing to cholera, diarrhea, dysentery, hepatitis A, typhoid, polio, and various neglected tropical diseases (The Economist, 2019). Unimproved sanitation includes open defecation, shared latrines that lack privacy, or other sanitation methods with insufficient pathogen reduction of fecal material. The most affected regions are sub-Saharan Africa, Southern and Eastern Asia, Afghanistan, and Iraq (CDC, 2016). Without private toilets, girls reaching puberty are also less likely to continue school. Improved sanitation can contribute to increased human potential, human rights, and gross domestic product.

Creative Commons License

Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Share Alike 4.0 International License.

Included in

Public Health Commons